Public International Law
In public international law research the legal system in force between states, international organisations and other subjects of public international law is studied. Individuals and legal persons are only to a certain extent subjects of public international law.
The decentralised process of law-creation that is characteristic for the international legal system makes it harder to draw the line between the law in force (lex lata) and the law as it should or could be (lex ferenda) in public international law compared to other legal disciplines.
The decentralised process of law-application means that states can themselves often determine the contents of public international rules. Insome cases, however, states have accepted independent bodies, for example courts. which can influence or even determine the content of the law.
The importance of the public international law has increased significantly as a result of globalisation. National legislation has to a large extent been internationalised. Globalisation also leads to a less sharp line between public international law and national law, as well as European law.
Some of the issues that are at present being studied are: human rights at national level, the constitutionalisation of public international law, international police cooperation and international sanctions. Other fields of study are how international courts and tribunals affect each other, international security and the right of self-defence, as well as international humanitarian law in modern conflicts.